Russia or, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. The capital City of Russia is MOSCOW.
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Russia is located in the Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The territory of Russia lies between latitudes 41 degrees north and 82 degrees north, and longitudes 19 degrees east and 169 degrees west.
Russia is the largest country in the world in terms of territory. Its total area is 17,075,400 square kilometres or 6,601,668 square miles.
According to the 2010 Census, the population of Russia is 142,905,200. The population has been declining since it peaked at 148,689,000 in 1991.
Life expectancy in Russia is 59 years for men and 73 years for women.
The currency of Russia is called the ruble or ruble.
Russia is a multi-ethnic and multi-faith nation. The chief religion of Russia is Russian Orthodox Christianity, which is professed by about 75 percent of citizens who describe themselves as religious believers. Islam, professed by about 19 percent of believers in the mid-1990′s, is numerically the second most important religion in Russia.
The Russian tricolour flag consists of three horizontal bands of equal height, displaying the country’s national colours: white, blue, and red. The white band is positioned on the top, the blue in the middle, and the red on the bottom.
The official language of Russia is Russian. It is the only official language throughout the country. The Russian language is spoken by 300 million people in different countries. It is the 5th most spoken language in the world, the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the largest native language in Europe. Russian is a tongue of a great literary tradition and international communication in politics (it is one of the United Nations official languages), science, culture and sports.
The largest Russian cities with the population greater than 1 million are Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Kazan, Omsk, Chelyabinsk, Rostov-on-Don, Ufa and Volgograd.
Continental climate is prevalent in European and Asian Russia. The climate is humid continental (summers are warm to hot and winters are cold) in the most populous areas in European Russia, south of West Siberia and in the south of the Russian Far East. The climate is subarctic (very cold winters and short, cool to mild summers) in Northern European Russia and Siberia. Winters are extremely severe in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia. Humid subtropical climate (hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters) is typical for the Black Sea coast, most notably Sochi.
Russia is a federation and semi-presidential republic. The President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government.
Major Russian cities have well-developed and diverse systems of public transport, including the most common varieties of vehicles such as buses, trolleybuses, trams, underground metro, plains, ships, boats, aqua buses etc.
International dialing code
Dial +7 when making a phone call to Russia. Make sure to dial the city code and the local telephone number.
Russia is among the foremost wanted places once it involves following medical education. This country provides prime quality education to the scholars from everywhere the globe. Every year, nearly 2 million aspiring students recruit themselves in medical courses.
MBBS in Russia offers acts as outstanding destination for following higher studies. the colleges and institutes supply numerous facilities to the foreign students so students can recruit themselves with none hassles. Besides this, you’ll save a substantial quantity of cash of you pursue the courses from Russia. The Russian institutes supply M.D degree that is accepted all round the globe.Student can pursue the course during this country and apply as a doctor in any country of your selection.For MBBS in Russia students will pick English or Russian language. an over sized share of foreign students pick English because the primary medium. If you decide for the Russian language then you have got to pay an additional year learning this language.
mbbs in russia
WHY MBBS IN RUSSIA:
For MBBS in Russia, As a student, you will always consider the place that offer the best in terms of medical courses and fee structure. Russian universities offer numerous benefits to the students some of which include:
1.You do not have to pay any kind of donation to the colleges.
2.There is no specified entrance exam for the courses.
3.The admission process is very easy which makes it perfect for the aspiring candidates.
4.The degrees have been validated by international organizations like WHO and UNESCO.
5.Broad exposure to the students which includes clinical practices and medical training’s.
7.Low course fees.
8.Great accommodation facilities.
9.Well equipped hospitals with tertiary care .
10.Advanced teaching facilities.
Belgorod State University Russia – Medical Courses RussiaWith the worldwide recognition of the MBBS in Russia, anyone will decide on these courses with none dilemmas. the coed and teacher quantitative relation within the medical institutes is 7:1 that is kind of smart as compared to alternative countries. the scholars are schooled with latest strategies that will increase their skills. An efficient system of education offers the simplest potentialities to the scholars. the simplest factor concerning MBBS in Russia is that the scholars don’t got to pass AN entrance take a look at to enter themselves in these courses. you’ll be able to decide on direct admission with the assistance of study centers throughout the globe. the tutorial session starts within the month of set fragment and goes on until January. the scholars will enter themselves throughout this era.
At the School in Russia, we understand that the time students spend outside of class is as important to their linguistic and cultural immersion as the time spent in formal educational situations. Where students live, what language they interact in regularly, and what activities they pursue with Russian peers all play key roles in their ultimate experience.
Participation in extracurricular pursuits is a major priority of the School in Russia. On-site staff and university faculty work actively to assist students in locating individual activities.The School in Russia strongly encourages participants to pursue individual activities outside of classes and away from the other American students in the group.
Although “campus life” as we know it in the United States does not exist in Russia, and the network of clubs and activities at a Russian university can appear limited to American students, a wide variety of opportunities are indeed available at facilities throughout each city.
The School in Russia, with help from its host universities, maintains contacts at a variety of facilities in each host city and can advise students on particular pursuits. However, ultimate responsibility for arranging extracurricular events, once they are identified, lies with the student. The School in Russia will help participants to locate activities, but expects that students will follow through independently once those activities have been found.
The School in Russia organizes one or two out-of-town trips for program participants each semester, to cities and regions of historical and cultural interest. A limited number of city excursions are also organized each semester, at each site.
Except in situations where an excursion is a required component of a particular course, all trips and excursions are optional. Students may choose to not participate on group events, at their discretion. However, the program cannot reimburse or otherwise compensate students for events missed.
Destinations for trips vary from site to site and from year to year. Past groups have traveled on short trips to Nizhnyi Novgorod, Pskov, Vologda, Vladimir/Suzdal, Tver’/Torzhok, Tula/Yasnaya Polyana, (western Russia), and Ulan-Ude, Krasnoyarsk, Khakassiya, Tuva and a variety of sites on Lake Baikal (Irkutsk). Longer trips have taken students to Arkhangelsk, Vladivostok, Volgograd, Sochi, Kazan, and the Lapland areas of the Murmansk region.
Russian Embassy in Washington, D.C.
Russian-American diplomatic relations – bicentennial celebration
History of American-Russian Relations
www.rambler.ru, www.yandex.ru, www.aport.ru: Three of the largest Russian language search engines.
www.museum.ru: Catalog and information for most of the country’s museums–may be searched by region.
www.rispubs.com: Site of Russian Life magazine. Articles about culture and history of Russia in English. Recommendations for inexpensive US-Russia calling card options.
The topography of Russia.Russia is the largest country in the world; its total area is 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi). There are 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia, 40 UNESCO biosphere reserves, 41 national parks and 101 nature reserves. It lies between latitudes 41° and 82° N, and longitudes 19° E and 169° W.
Russia has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores and other mineral resources.
The two widest separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km (4,971 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: the boundary with Poland on a 60 km (37 mi) long Vistula Spit separating the Gdańsk Bay from the Vistula Lagoon; and the farthest southeast of the Kuril Islands. The points which are furthest separated in longitude are 6,600 km (4,101 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: in the west, the same spit; in the east, the Big Diomede Island. The Russian Federation spans 9 time zones.
Most of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast. Russia possesses 10% of the world’s arable land.Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus, which at 5,642 m (18,510 ft) is the highest point in both Russia and Europe) and the Altai (containing Mount Belukha, which at the 4,506 m (14,783 ft) is the highest point of Siberia outside of the Russian Far East); and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes of Kamchatka Peninsula (containing Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which at the 4,750 m (15,584 ft) is the highest active volcano in Eurasia as well as the highest point of Asian Russia). The Ural Mountains, rich in mineral resources, form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia.
Russia has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 km (22,991 mi) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as along the Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea and Caspian Sea. The Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Sea of Japan are linked to Russia via the Arctic and Pacific. Russia’s major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin. The Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the U.S.) are just 3 km (1.9 mi) apart, and Kunashir Island is about 20 km (12.4 mi) from Hokkaido, Japan.
Central Russian Upland near Zaraysk, Moscow Oblast.Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world’s largest surface water resources. Its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world’s liquid fresh water. The largest and most prominent of Russia’s bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world’s deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious fresh water lake. Baikal alone contains over one-fifth of the world’s fresh surface water. Other major lakes include Ladoga and Onega, two of the largest lakes in Europe. Russia is second only to Brazil in volume of the total renewable water resources. Of the country’s 100,000 rivers, the Volga is the most famous, not only because it is the longest river in Europe, but also because of its major role in Russian history. The Siberian rivers Ob, Yenisey, Lena and Amur are among the longest rivers in the world.
The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate, which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southeast. Mountains in the south obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences.
Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia has a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly the Sakha Republic, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of −71.2 °C or −96.2 °F), and more moderate elsewhere. The strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean, as well as the Russian Arctic islands, have a polar climate.
The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably in Sochi, possesses a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters. Winter is dry compared to summer in many regions of East Siberia and the Far East, while other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possesses a semi-arid climate.
Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer—as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low temperatures and extremely high. The coldest month is January (February on the coastline), the warmest usually is July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia.The continental interiors are the driest areas.
The brown bear is a popular symbol of Russia, particularly in the West.From north to south the East European Plain, also known as Russian Plain, is clad sequentially in Arctic tundra, coniferous forest (taiga), mixed and broad-leaf forests, grassland (steppe), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea), as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Siberia supports a similar sequence but is largely taiga. Russia has the world’s largest forest reserves,known as “the lungs of Europe”, second only to the Amazon Rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs.There are 266 mammal species and 780 bird species in Russia. A total of 415 animal species have been included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation as of 1997 and are now protected.
Russia has a market economy with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas. It has the 8th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. The country ended 2008 with its ninth straight year of growth, averaging 7% annually between 2000 and 2008. Real GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) was 19,840 in 2010. Growth was primarily driven by non-traded services and goods for the domestic market, as opposed to oil or mineral extraction and exports. The average nominal salary in Russia was $640 per month in early 2008, up from $80 in 2000.In the May of 2013 the average nominal monthly wages reached 30,000 RUR (or US$967), while tax on the income of individuals is payable at the rate of 13% on most incomes. Approximately 13.7% of Russians lived below the national poverty line in 2010,significantly down from 40% in 1998 at the worst point of the post-Soviet collapse.Unemployment in Russia was at 6% in 2007, down from about 12.4% in 1999. The middle class has grown from just 8 million persons in 2000 to 55 million persons in 2006. Sugar imports reportedly dropped 82% between 2012–2013.
Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account for more than 80% of Russian exports abroad. Since 2003, the exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market strengthened considerably. Despite higher energy prices, oil and gas only contribute to 5.7% of Russia’s GDP and the government predicts this will be 3.7% by 2011.
Oil export earnings allowed Russia to increase its foreign reserves from $12 billion in 1999 to $597.3 billion on 1 August 2008, the third largest foreign exchange reserves in the world. The macroeconomic policy under Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin was prudent and sound, with excess income being stored in the Stabilization Fund of Russia. In 2006, Russia repaid most of its formerly massive debts, leaving it with one of the lowest foreign debts among major economies.The Stabilization Fund helped Russia to come out of the global financial crisis in a much better state than many experts had expected.A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in 2001 reduced the tax burden on people and dramatically increased state revenue. Russia has a flat tax rate of 13%. This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates. According to Bloomberg, Russia is considered well ahead of most other resource-rich countries in its economic development, with a long tradition of education, science, and industry. The country has a higher proportion of higher education graduates than any other country in Eurasia.
The economic development of the country has been uneven geographically with the Moscow region contributing a very large share of the country’s GDP. Another problem is modernisation of infrastructure, ageing and inadequate after years of being neglected in 1990s; the government has said $1 trillion will be invested in development of infrastructure by 2020. In December 2011, Russia finally joined World Trade Organisation, allowing it a greater access to overseas markets. Some analysts estimate that WTO membership could bring the Russian economy a bounce of up to 3% annually.Russia ranks as the second-most corrupt country in Europe (after Ukraine), according to the Corruption Perceptions Index. The Norwegian-Russian Chamber of Commerce also states that “[c]orruption is one of the biggest problems both Russian and international companies have to deal with”.
Rye Fields, by Ivan Shishkin. Russia is the world’s top producer of rye, barley, buckwheat, oats and sunflower seed, and one of the largest producers and exporters of wheat.
The total area of cultivated land in Russia was estimated as 1,237,294 km2 in 2005, the fourth largest in the world. From 1999 to 2009, Russia’s agriculture demonstrated steady growth, and the country turned from a grain importer to the third largest grain exporter after EU and the United States. The production of meat has grown from 6,813,000 tonnes in 1999 to 9,331,000 tonnes in 2008, and continues to grow.
This restoration of agriculture was supported by credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and large privatized corporate farms, that once were Soviet kolkhozes and still own the significant share of agricultural land. While large farms concentrate mainly on the production of grain and husbandry products, small private household plots produce most of the country’s yield of potatoes, vegetables and fruits.
With access to three of the world’s oceans—the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific—Russian fishing fleets are a major contributor to the world’s fish supply. The total capture of fish was at 3,191,068 tons in 2005. Both exports and imports of fish and sea products grew significantly in the recent years, reaching correspondingly $2,415 and $2,036 millions in 2008.
Sprawling from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, Russia has more than a fifth of the world’s forests, which makes it the largest forest country in the world. However, according to a 2012 study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Government of the Russian Federation, the considerable potential of Russian forests is underutilized and Russia’s share of the global trade in forest products is less than four percent.
Russia is a key oil and gas supplier to much of Europe.In recent years, Russia has frequently been described in the media as an energy superpower. The country has the world’s largest natural gas reserves, the 8th largest oil reserves, and the second largest coal reserves. Russia is the world’s leading natural gas exporter and second largest natural gas producer, while also the largest oil exporter and the largest oil producer. On 1 January 2011, Russia said it had begun scheduled oil shipments to China, with the plan to increase the rate up to 300,000 barrels per day in 2011.
Russia is the 3rd largest electricity producer in the world and the 5th largest renewable energy producer, the latter because of the well-developed hydroelectricity production in the country. Large cascades of hydropower plants are built in European Russia along big rivers like Volga. The Asian part of Russia also features a number of major hydropower stations, however the gigantic hydroelectric potential of Siberia and the Russian Far East largely remains unexploited.
Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct the world’s first nuclear power plant. Currently the country is the 4th largest nuclear energy producer, with all nuclear power in Russia being managed by Rosatom State Corporation. The sector is rapidly developing, with an aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current 16.9% to 23% by 2020. The Russian government plans to allocate 127 billion rubles ($5.42 billion) to a federal program dedicated to the next generation of nuclear energy technology. About 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) is to be allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015.
The marker for kilometre 9288 at the end of the Trans-Siberian Railway in Vladivostok.Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways monopoly. The company accounts for over 3.6% of Russia’s GDP and handles 39% of the total freight traffic (including pipelines) and more than 42% of passenger traffic. The total length of common-used railway tracks exceeds 85,500 km (53,127 mi),second only to the United States.
Major sea ports of Russia include Rostov-on-Don on the Azov Sea, Novorossiysk on the Black Sea, Astrakhan and Makhachkala on the Caspian, Kaliningrad and St Petersburg on the Baltic, Arkhangelsk on the White Sea, Murmansk on the Barents Sea, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean. In 2008 the country owned 1,448 merchant marine ships. The world’s only fleet of nuclear-powered icebreakers advances the economic exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf of Russia and the development of sea trade through the Northern Sea Route between Europe and East Asia.
By total length of pipelines Russia is second only to the United States. Currently many new pipeline projects are being realized, including Nord Stream and South Stream natural gas pipelines to Europe, and the Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean oil pipeline (ESPO) to the Russian Far East and China.
Russia has 1,216 airports,the busiest being Sheremetyevo, Domodedovo, and Vnukovo in Moscow, and Pulkovo in St. Petersburg. The total length of runways in Russia exceeds 600,000 kilometres (370,000 mi).
Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus and tram. Seven Russian cities, namely Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Samara, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan, have underground metros, while Volgograd features a metrotram. The total length of metros in Russia is 465.4 kilometres (289.2 mi). Moscow Metro and Saint Petersburg Metro are the oldest in Russia, opened in 1935 and 1955 respectively. These two are among the fastest and busiest metro systems in the world, and are famous for rich decorations and unique designs of their stations, which is a common tradition on Russian metros and railways.
Education in Russia is provided predominantly by the state and is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. In 2004 state spending for education amounted to 3.6% of GDP, or 13% of consolidated state budget. In 2011, the spending on education amounted to $ 20 billion. Private institutions account for 1% of pre-school enrollment, 0.5% of elementary school enrollment and 17% of university-level students.
Before 1990 the course of school training in Soviet Union was 10-years, but at the end of 1990 the 11-year course had been officially entered. Education in state-owned secondary schools are free; first tertiary (university level) education is free with reservations: a substantial number of students are enrolled for full pay. Male and female students have equal shares in all stages of education, except tertiary education where women lead with 57%.
The literacy rate in Russia, according to the 2002 census, is 99.4% (99.7% men, 99.2% women). According to a 2008 World Bank statistic 54% of the Russian labor force has attained a tertiary (college) education, giving Russia the highest attainment of college-level education in the world. 47.7% have completed secondary education (9 or 10 years old); 26.5% have completed middle school (8 or 9 years old) and 8.1% have elementary education (5 years old). Highest rates of tertiary education, 24.7% are recorded among women aged 35–39 years (compared to 19.5% for men of the same age bracket).
According to the 2002 census, 68% of children (78% urban and 47% rural) aged 5 are enrolled in kindergartens.According to UNESCO data, enrollment in any kind of pre-school programme increased from 67% in 1999 to 84% in 2005.Kindergartens, unlike schools, are regulated by regional and local authorities. The Ministry of Education and Science regulates only a brief pre-school preparation programme for the 5–6 year old children. In 2004 the government attempted to charge the full cost of kindergartens to the parents; widespread public opposition caused a reversal of policy. Currently, local authorities can legally charge the parents not more than 20% of costs. Twins, children of university students, refugees, Chernobyl veterans and other protected social groups are entitled to free service.
The Soviet system provided for nearly universal primary (nursery, age 1 to 3) and kindergarten (age 3 to 7) service in urban areas, relieving working mothers from daytime childcare needs. By the 1980s, there were 88,000 preschool institutions; as the secondary-education study load increased and moved from the ten to eleven-year standard, the kindergarten programmes shifted from training basic social skills, or physical abilities, to preparation for entering the school level. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the number decreased to 46,000; kindergarten buildings were sold as real estate, irreversibly rebuilt and converted for office use. At the same time, a minority share of successful state-owned kindergartens, regarded as a vertical lift to quality schooling, flourished throughout the 1990s. Privately owned kindergartens, although in high demand, did not gain a significant share due to administrative pressure; share of children enrolled in private kindergartens dropped from 7% in 1999 to 1% in 2005.
The improvement of the economy after the 1998 crisis, coupled with historical demographic peak, resulted in an increase in birth rate, first recorded in 2005. Large cities encountered shortage of kindergarten vacancies earlier, in 2002. Moscow’s kindergarten waiting list included 15,000 children; in the much smaller city of Tomsk (population 488,000) it reached 12,000. The city of Moscow instituted specialised kindergarten commissions that are tasked with locating empty slots for the children; parents sign their children on the waiting list as soon as they are born. The degree of the problem varies between districts, e.g. Moscow’s Fili-Davydkovo District (population 78,000) has lost all of its kindergartens (residents have to compete for kindergarten slots elsewhere) while Zelenograd claims to have short queue. Independent authors assert that bribes or “donations” for admission to kindergartens compete in amount with university admissions while authorities refute the accusation.
According to a 2005 UNESCO report, 96% of the adult population has completed lower secondary schooling and most of them also have an upper secondary education.
Eleven-year secondary education in Russian is compulsory since September 1, 2007. Until 2007, it was limited to nine years with grades 10-11 optional; federal subjects of Russia could enforce higher compulsory standard through local legislation within the eleven–year federal programme. Moscow enacted compulsory eleven–year education in 2005,similar legislation existed in Altai Krai, Sakha and Tyumen Oblast. A student of 15 to 18 years of age may drop out of school with approval of his/her parent and local authorities, and without their consent upon reaching age of 18. Expulsion from school for multiple violations disrupting school life is possible starting at the age of 15.
The eleven-year school term is split into elementary (grades 1-4), middle (grades 5-9) and senior (grades 10-11) classes. Absolute majority of children attend full programme schools providing eleven-year education; schools limited to elementary or elementary and middle classes typically exist in rural areas. Of 59,260 schools in Russia, 36,248 provide full eleven-year programme, 10,833 – nine-year “basic” (elementary and middle) programme, and 10,198 – elementary education only. Their number is disproportionately large compared to their share of students due to lesser class sizes in rural schools. In areas where school capacity is insufficient to teach all students on a normal, morning to afternoon, schedule, authorities resort to double shift schools, where two streams of students (morning shift and evening shift) share the same facility. There were 13,100 double shift and 75 triple shift schools in 2007-2008, compared to 19,201 and 235 in 2000-2001.
Children are accepted to first grade at the age of 6 or 7, depending on individual development of each child. Until 1990, starting age was set at seven years and schooling lasted ten years (all compulsory). The switch from ten to eleven-year term was motivated by continuously increasing load in middle and senior grades. In 1960s, it resulted in a “conversion” of the fourth grade from elementary to middle school. Decrease in elementary schooling led to greater disparity between children entering middle school; to compensate for the “missing” fourth grade, elementary schooling was extended with a “zero grade” for six-year-olds. This move remains a subject of controversy.
Children of elementary classes are normally separated from other classes within their own floor of a school building. They are taught, ideally, by a single teacher through all four elementary grades (except for physical training and, if available, foreign languages); 98.5% of elementary school teachers are women. Their number decreased from 349,000 in 1999 to 317,000 in 2005. Starting from the fifth grade, each academic subject is taught by a dedicated specialty teacher (80.4% women in 2004, an increase from 75.4% in 1991). Pupil-to-teacher ratio (11:1) is on par with developed European countries. Teachers’ average monthly salaries in 2008 range from 6,200 roubles (260 US dollars) in Mordovia to 21,000 roubles (900 US dollars) in Moscow.
The school year extends from September 1 to end of May and is divided into four terms. Study programme in schools is fixed; unlike in some Western countries, schoolchildren or their parents have no choice of study subjects. Class load per student (638 hours a year for nine-year-olds, 893 for thirteen-year-olds) is lower than in Chile, Peru or Thailand, although official hours are frequently appended with additional classwork. Students are graded on a 5-step scale, ranging in practice from 2 (“unacceptable”) to 5 (“excellent”); 1 is a rarely used sign of extreme failure. Teachers regularly subdivide these grades (i.e. 4+, 5-) in daily use, but term and year results are graded strictly 2, 3, 4 or 5
Vocational training option
Upon completion of a nine-year programme the student has a choice of either completing the remaining two years at normal school, or of a transfer to a specialized professional training school. Historically, those were divided into low-prestige PTUs and better-regarded technicums and medical (nurse level) schools; in the 2000s, many such institutions, if operational, have been renamed to colleges. They provide students with a working skill qualification and a high school certificate equivalent to 11-year education in a normal school; the programme, due to its work training component, extends to 3 years. In 2007–08 there were 2,800 such institutions with 2,280,000 students. Russian vocational schools, like the Tech Prep schools in the USA, fall out of ISCED classification,[ thus the enrollment number reported by UNESCO is lower, 1.41 million; the difference is attributed to senior classes of technicums that exceed secondary education standard.
All certificates of secondary education (Maturity Certificate, Russian: аттестат зрелости), regardless of issuing institution, conform to the same state standard and are considered, at least by law, to be fully equivalent. The state prescribes minimum (and nearly exhaustive) set of study subjects that must appear in each certificate. In practice, extension of study terms to three years slightly disadvantages vocational schools’ male students who intend to continue: they reach conscription age before graduation or immediately after it, and normally must serve in the army before applying to undergraduate-level institutions.
Though everyone is eligible to postpone their conscription to receive higher education, they must be at least signed-up for the admission tests into the university the moment they get the conscription notice from the army. Most of military commissariats officials are fairly loyal to the potential recruits on that matter and usually allow graduates enough time to choose the university and sign-up for admission or enroll there on paid basis despite the fact that the spring recruiting period is not yet ended by the time most schools graduate their students and all those people may legally be commanded to present themselves to the recruitment centers the next day after the graduation.
Males of conscription age that chose not to continue their education at any stage usually get notice from the army within half a year after their education ends, because of the periodic nature of recruitment periods in Russian army.
Unified state examinations
Traditionally, the universities and institutes conducted their own admissions tests regardless of the applicants’ school record. There were no uniform measure of graduates’ abilities; marks issued by high schools were perceived as incompatible due to grading variances between schools and regions. In 2003 the Ministry of Education launched the Unified state examination (USE) programme. The set of standardised tests for high school graduates, issued uniformly throughout the country and rated independent of the student’s schoolmasters, akin to North American SAT, was supposed to replace entrance exams to state universities. Thus, the reformers reasoned, the USE will empower talented graduates from remote locations to compete for admissions at the universities of their choice, at the same time eliminating admission-related bribery, then estimated at 1 billion US dollars annually. In 2003, 858 university and college workers were indicted for bribery, admission “fee” in MGIMO allegedly reached 30,000 US dollars.
University heads, notably Moscow State University rector Viktor Sadovnichiy, resisted the novelty, arguing that their schools cannot survive without charging the applicants with their own entrance hurdles. Nevertheless, the legislators enacted USE in February 2007. In 2008 it was mandatory for the students and optional for the universities; it is fully mandatory since 2009.A few higher education establishments are still allowed to introduce their own entrance tests in addition to USE scoring; such tests must be publicized in advance.
Awarding USE grades involves two stages. In this system, a “primary grade” is the sum of points for completed tasks, with each of the tasks having a maximum number of points allocated to it. The maximum total primary grade varies by subject, so that one might obtain, for instance, a primary grade of 23 out of 37 in mathematics and a primary grade of 43 out of 80 in French. The primary grades are then converted into final or “test grades” by means of a sophisticated statistical calculation, which takes into account the distribution of primary grades among the examinees. This system has been criticized for its lack of transparency.
The first nation-wide USE session covering all regions of Russia was held in the summer of 2008. 25.3% students failed literature test, 23.5% failed mathematics; the highest grades were recorded in French, English and society studies. Twenty thousand students filed objections against their grades; one third of objections were settled in the student’s favor.
Education for the disabled
Children with physical disabilities, depending on the nature, extent of disability and availability of local specialised institutions, attend either such institutions or special classes within regular schools. As of 2007, there were 80 schools for the blind and the children with poor eyesight; their school term is extended to 12 years and classes are limited to 9-12 pupils per teacher. Education for the deaf is provided by 99 specialized kindergartens and 207 secondary boarding schools; children who were born deaf are admitted to specialized kindergartens as early as possible, ideally from 18 months of age; they are schooled separately from children who lost hearing after acquiring basic speech skills. Vocational schools for the working deaf people who have not completed secondary education exist in five cities only. Another wide network of specializes institutions takes care of children with mobility disorders. 60-70% of all children with cerebral palsy are schooled through this channel.Children are admitted to specialises kindergartens at three or four years of age and are streamed into narrow specialty groups; the specialisation continues throughout their school term that may extend to thirteen years. The system, however, is not ready to accept children who also display evident developmental disability; they have no other option than home schooling. All graduates of physical disability schools are entitled to the same level of secondary education certificates as normal graduates.
There are 42 specialised vocational training (non-degree) colleges for disabled people; most notable are the School of Music for the Blind in Kursk and Medical School for the Blind in Kislovodsk. Fully segregated undergraduate education is provided by two colleges: the Institute of Arts for the Disabled (enrollment of 158 students in 2007) and the Social Humanitarian Institute (enrollment of 250 students), both in Moscow. Other institutions provide semi-segregated training (specialized groups within normal college environment) or declare full disability access of their regular classes. Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Chelyabinsk State University have the highest number of disabled students (170 each, 2007). Bauman University focuses on education for the deaf; Herzen Pedagogical Institute enroll different groups of physical disability. However, independent studies assert that the universities fail to integrate people with disabilities into their academic and social life.
An estimated 20% of children leaving kindergarten fail to adjust to elementary school requirements and are in need of special schooling. Children with delayed development who may return to normal schools and study along with normal children are trained at compensatory classes within regular schools. The system is intended to prepare these children for normal school at the earliest possible age, closing (compensating) the gap between them and normal students. It is a relatively new development that began in the 1970s and gained national approval in the 1990s.
Persistent but mild mental disabilities that preclude co-education with normal children in the foreseeable future but do not qualify as moderate, heavy, or severe retardation require specialized correction (Russian: коррекционные) boarding schools that extend from 8–9 to 18–21 years of age. Their task is to adapt the person to living in a modern society, rather than to subsequent education.
According to a 2005 UNESCO report, more than half of the Russian adult population has attained a tertiary education, which is twice as high as the OECD average.
As of the 2007–2008 academic year, Russia had 8.1 million students enroled in all forms of tertiary education (including military and police institutions and postgraduate studies).Foreign students accounted for 5.2% of enrollment, half of whom were from other CIS countries. 6.2 million students were enroled in 658 state-owned and 450 private civilian university-level institutions licensed by the Ministry of Education; total faculty reached 625 thousands in 2005.
The number of state-owned institutions was rising steadily from 514 in 1990 to 655 in 2002 and remains nearly constant since 2002. The number of private institutions, first reported as 193 in 1995, continues to rise. The trend for consolidation began in 2006 when state universities and colleges of Rostov-on-Don, Taganrog and other southern towns were merged into Southern Federal University, based in Rostov-on-Don; a similar conglomerate was formed in Krasnoyarsk as Siberian Federal University; the third one emerged in Vladivostok as Far Eastern Federal University. Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University acquired the federal university status in 2007 without further organisational changes.
Andrei Fursenko, Minister of Education, is campaigning for a reduction in number of institutions to weed out diploma mills and substandard colleges; in April 2008 his stance was approved by president Dmitry Medvedev: “This amount, around a thousand universities and two thousands spinoffs, does not exist anywhere else in the world; it may be over the top even for China … consequences are clear: devaluation of education standard”. Even supporters of the reduction like Yevgeny Yasin admit that the move will strengthen consolidation of academia in Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Novosibirsk and devastate the provinces, leaving the federal subjects of Russia without colleges for training local school teachers.For a comparison, the United States have a total of 4,495 Title IV-eligible, degree-granting institutions: 2,774 BA/BSc degree institutions and 1,721 AA/ASc degree institutions.
Medical Teachers guarantee that graduates from these medical universities are eligible to take the Medical Licensing Examinations held by the medical councils in different countries such as MCI, PMDC, USMLE, HPCSA, SCFHS etc.
According to MOE , higher educational institutions that enroll international students for the undergraduate medical program in English shall have the authority to grant master’s degree in Basic Medicine and Clinical Medicine (First-level Subjects), and the affiliated hospitals with Grade III, Level A.
The universities have their own first-class medical labs with pretty good facilities in the nationwide. And all the universities have the 3A comprehensive affiliated teaching and practicing hospitals approved by the Ministry of Health.
After you receive the school admission letter, it will take 2-5 weeks to get your student visa.
Some universities specially provide girls’ hostel, boys’ hostel and the common hostels that anyone can apply.
Yes. Almost all the universities have the Muslim restaurants for both international students and the local majority students.
All universities receive applications for MBBS programs through Medical Teachers. It is the official online portal for international students applying to all international medical universities. Medical Teachers was set up with support from all country’s Ministry of Education to act as an online liaison between international students and their medical universities. Medical Teachers application process is done online.
There is a wealth of other areas that students can study. Students can study various aspects of their art and culture. Students can also take advantage of classes on dance, painting, calligraphy, literature and more while they study medicine.
A local language course is compulsory in every university which offers MBBS in English. Even if classes are conducted in English, the language spoken in daily life is essential for students when they leave the classroom. It is helpful for international students to know local language. Nevertheless, not all of the universities ask the students to pass the HSK test at a certain level before graduation. For detailed information, you check the accredited universities respectively.
In general, universities are not accept the transferring from a school, university or institution where you have studied in a degree program.